Contents
ACCOUNTING POLICIES
for the year ended 30 September 2006
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Commentary
Directors’ responsibility
Secretaries’ certification
Report of the independent auditors
Directors’ report
Accounting policies
Income statements
Balance sheets
Cash flow statements
Notes to the cash flow statements
Statements of changes
in equity
Notes to the annual financial statements
Principal subsidiaries
Share ownership analysis
Shareholders’ diary
Corporate administration and information
Currency conversion table
Notice of annual general meeting - PDF 106kb
Proxy form - PDF 82kb
 
The consolidated financial statements, comprising Reunert Limited, its subsidiaries, joint ventures and associates (together referred to as “the group”), incorporate the following principal accounting policies, set out below.
 
STATEMENT OF COMPLIANCE
The consolidated financial statements have been prepared in accordance with International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) and Interpretations of those standards as issued by the International Accounting Standards Board (IASB) and the International Financial Reporting Interpretations Committee (IFRIC) of the IASB, the requirements of the JSE Limited and the requirements of the Companies Act, Act 61 of 1973 as amended.

These are the group’s first consolidated financial statements prepared in terms of IFRS and IFRS 1 – First-time adoption of IFRS. The date of the group’s transition to IFRS is 1 October 2004.

An explanation of how the transition to IFRS has affected the reported financial position and financial performance of the group is provided in note 8 to the consolidated annual financial statements.

At the date of these financial statements, the following Standards and Interpretations were in issue but not yet effective:

IFRS 6 – Exploration for and Evaluation of Mineral Resources
IFRS 7 – Financial Instruments: Disclosures
IFRIC 4 – Determining Whether an Arrangement Contains a Lease
IFRIC 5 – Rights to Interests arising from Decommissioning, Restoration and Environmental Rehabilitation Funds
IFRIC 6 – Liabilities Arising from Participating in a Specific Market – Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment
IFRIC 7 – Applying the Restatement Approach under IAS 29 Financial Reporting in Hyperinflationary Economies
IFRIC 8 – Scope of IFRS 2
IFRIC 9 – Reassessment of Embedded Derivatives
IFRIC 10 – Interim Financial Reporting and Impairment
IFRIC 11 – Group and Treasury Share Transactions
AC 503 – Accounting for Black Economic Empowerment (BEE) transactions

Except for additional disclosures in the financial statements, the adoption of the above Standards and Interpretations is not expected to materially affect the results or financial position of the group.
 
BASIS OF PREPARATION
The consolidated financial statements are prepared on the historical cost basis, except for certain financial instruments which are stated at fair value.

The consolidated financial statements are presented in South African rand, the currency in which the majority of the group’s transactions are denominated.

The consolidated financial statements are prepared on the going concern basis.

The preparation of financial statements in conformity with IFRS requires management to make judgements, estimates and assumptions that affect the application of policies and reported amounts of assets and liabilities, income and expenses.

The estimates and associated assumptions are based on historical experience and various other factors that are believed to be reasonable under the circumstances, the results of which form the basis of making the judgements about carrying values of assets and liabilities that are not readily apparent from other resources. Actual results may differ from the estimates.

The estimates and underlying assumptions are reviewed on an ongoing basis. Revisions to accounting estimates are recognised in the period in which the estimate is revised if the revision affects only the period, or in the period of the revision and future periods if the revision affects both current and future periods.

Judgements made by management in the application of IFRS that may have a significant effect on the financial statements and estimates with a significant risk of material adjustment in the following year are disclosed at the end of this section.

The accounting policies set out below have been applied, in all material respects, consistently to all periods presented in these consolidated financial statements and in preparing an opening balance sheet at 1 October 2004 for the purposes of transition to IFRS.

The accounting policies have been applied consistently by all group entities.
 
COMPARATIVE FIGURES
The comparative figures have been restated to comply with IFRS, as per note 8.
 
BASIS OF CONSOLIDATION
The group annual financial statements incorporate the financial statements of the company, its subsidiaries, joint ventures and associates.
 
Subsidiaries
A subsidiary is an entity over which the group has control. Control exists where the company has the power, directly or indirectly, to govern the financial and operating policies of an entity so as to obtain benefits from its activities. The existence and effect of potential voting rights that are currently exercisable or convertible are considered when assessing whether the group controls another entity.

Operating results of subsidiaries acquired are included from the effective date of acquisition. Operating results of subsidiaries disposed of are included up to the effective date of sale when control ceases.

Minority interest is measured as a percentage of the equity of relevant subsidiaries.

All intragroup transactions and balances, including any unrealised gains and losses or income and expenses arising from intragroup transactions, are eliminated in preparing the consolidated annual financial statements.
 
Associates
Associates are those entities in which investments are held which provide the group with the power to exercise significant influence over the financial and operating policies of those entities, but are not considered to be subsidiaries or joint ventures.

Associates are accounted for by the equity method from their audited or unaudited financial statements to 30 September. Investments in associates are carried in the consolidated balance sheet at cost as adjusted for post acquisition changes in the group’s share of the net assets of the associates, less any impairment in the value of the individual investments.

Where the group’s share of losses of an associate exceeds the carrying amount of the associate, the associate is carried at no value. Additional losses are only recognised to the extent that the group has incurred obligations or made payments on behalf of the associate.

Post acquisition earnings and reserves retained by associate companies are transferred to non-distributable reserves.

Any excess of the cost of acquisition over the group’s share of the net fair value of the identifiable assets, liabilities and contingent liabilities of the associate recognised at the date of acquisition is recognised as goodwill. Any excess of the group’s share of the net fair value of the identifiable assets, liabilities and contingent liabilities over the cost of acquisition, after reassessment, is recognised immediately in the income statement.

Intragroup transactions with associates are eliminated to the extent of the group’s interest in the relevant associate.
 
Joint ventures
Joint ventures are those entities which are not subsidiaries and over which the group exercises joint control.

Joint control is the contractually agreed sharing of control over an economic activity, and exists only when the strategic financial and operating decisions relating to the activity require the unanimous consent of the parties sharing control.

Joint ventures are accounted for using the proportionate consolidation method, whereby the group’s share of each of the assets, liabilities, income, expenses and cash flows of joint ventures are included on a line by line basis in the consolidated annual financial statements.

Intragroup transactions with joint ventures are accounted for as follows:

On sales made by the rest of the group to the joint venture, where the asset is retained by it, only that portion of the gain attributable to the other venturers is recognised. Where the sale is made at a loss, the full loss is recognised immediately.

Where sales are made by the joint venture to the rest of the group, no profits made by the joint venture are recognised in the group accounts until the asset has been sold to an independent party.

Any difference between the cost of the acquisition and the group’s share of the net identifiable assets, fairly valued, is recognised and treated according to the group’s accounting policy for goodwill.
 
Goodwill
Business combinations with agreement dates on or after 31 March 2004
 
All business combinations are accounted for by applying the purchase method. The cost of acquisition is measured at the aggregate of the fair values, at the date of acquisition, of assets given, liabilities incurred or assumed, and equity instruments issued by the group in exchange for control of the acquiree, plus any costs directly attributable to the business combination.

Goodwill arising on the acquisition of a subsidiary or a jointly controlled entity represents the excess of the cost of acquisition over the group’s interest in the net fair value of the identifiable assets, liabilities and contingent liabilities of the subsidiary or jointly controlled entity recognised at the date of acquisition. If the group’s interest in the net fair value of the acquiree’s identifiable assets, liabilities and contingent liabilities exceeds the cost of the business combination, the excess is recognised immediately in the income statement.

Goodwill is initially recognised as an asset at cost and is subsequently measured at cost less any accumulated impairment losses.

Goodwill is allocated to cash-generating units expected to benefit from the synergies of the combination. Goodwill is tested annually for impairment or more frequently when there is an indication that the unit may be impaired. If the recoverable amount of the cash-generating unit is less than the carrying amount of the unit, the impairment loss is allocated first to reduce the carrying amount of any goodwill allocated to the unit and then to the other assets of the unit pro-rata on the basis of the carrying amount of each asset in the unit. An impairment loss recognised for goodwill is not reversed in a subsequent period.

On disposal of a subsidiary or a jointly controlled entity, the attributable goodwill is included in the determination of the profit or loss on disposal.

The group’s policy for goodwill arising on the acquisition of an associate is described under “Associates”.

Business combinations with agreement dates before 31 March 2004

Goodwill was carried at cost, less accumulated amortisation and accumulated impairment losses. Goodwill was amortised on a straight-line basis over its estimated useful life, not exceeding 20 years up to 30 September 2004. Thereafter goodwill is not amortised but is subject to an annual impairment test. The accumulated amortisation has been netted against the cost.

On disposal of a subsidiary or a jointly controlled entity, the attributable goodwill is included in the determination of the profit or loss on disposal.
 
INVESTMENTS
All investments are initially recognised at cost, which includes transaction costs. After initial recognition, investments held for trading and those available for sale are measured at their fair values. Where investments are held for trading purposes, gains and losses arising from changes in fair value are recognised in the income statement for the period. For available for sale investments, gains and losses arising from changes in fair value are recognised directly in equity, until the investment is disposed of or is determined to be impaired, at which time the cumulative gain or loss previously recognised in equity is recognised in the income statement for the period. The following categories of investments are measured at amortised cost using the effective interest rate method if they have a fixed maturity or at cost if there is no fixed maturity:
 
• 
Loans and receivables originated by the group and not held for trading;
Held to maturity financial assets where the group has the ability and intention to hold the instrument to maturity; and
Investments in financial assets that do not have a quoted market price in an active market and whose fair value cannot be reliably measured.
 
The carrying values are reduced by any impairment losses recognised to reflect irrecoverable amounts.
 
PROPERTY, PLANT AND EQUIPMENT
All owner-occupied property and investment property are stated at cost less accumulated depreciation and accumulated impairment losses. Land is not depreciated and is, therefore, stated at cost less accumulated impairment losses. Investment properties are held to earn rental income and for capital appreciation, whereas owner-occupied properties are held for use by the group, in the supply of services or for administration purposes.

All other items of plant and equipment are stated at cost less accumulated depreciation and accumulated impairment losses. The cost of self-constructed assets includes the cost of materials, direct labour and an appropriate proportion of normal production overheads.

Where an item of property, plant and equipment comprises major components with different useful lives, these components are accounted for as separate items.

Subsequent expenditure relating to an item of property, plant and equipment is capitalised when it is probable that future economic benefits will flow to the group and the cost of the item can be measured reliably. All other subsequent expenditure (repairs and maintenance) is recognised as an expense when it is incurred. Profits or losses on disposal of property, plant and equipment are the difference between the net disposal proceeds and the carrying amount of the asset and are recognised in the income statement.

Depreciation is provided on a straight-line basis over the estimated useful lives of property, plant and equipment in order to reduce the cost of the asset to its residual value.

Residual value is the estimated amount that the group would currently obtain from disposal of the asset, after deducting the estimated costs of disposal, if the asset was already of the age and in the condition expected at the end of its useful life.

The depreciation methods, estimated remaining useful lives and residual values are reviewed at least annually.
 
INTANGIBLE ASSETS
Intangible assets are stated at cost less accumulated amortisation and accumulated impairment losses.

Subsequent expenditure on intangible assets is capitalised only when it increases future economic benefits embodied in the specific asset to which it relates. All other subsequent expenditure is expensed as incurred.

Intangible assets with finite useful lives are amortised on a straight-line basis over their estimated useful lives. The amortisation methods and estimated remaining useful lives are reviewed at least annually. Intangible assets with an indefinite useful life are not amortised but are tested at least annually for impairment.
 
Research and development
Expenditure on research activities, undertaken with the prospect of gaining new scientific or technical knowledge and understanding, and expenditure on internally generated goodwill and brands is recognised in the income statement as an expense when incurred.
 
Software
Purchased software and the direct costs associated with the customisation and installation thereof are stated at cost less accumulated amortisation and accumulated impairment losses. Expenditure on internally-developed software is capitalised if it is probable that future economic benefits will flow to the group from the assets and the costs of the asset can be reliably measured. Expenditure incurred to restore or maintain the originally assessed future economic benefits of existing software systems is recognised in the income statement.
 
IMPAIRMENT OF ASSETS
The carrying amounts of the group’s assets, other than deferred tax, are reviewed at each balance sheet date or whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount may not be recoverable, to determine whether there is any indication of impairment. If there is an indication that an asset may be impaired, its recoverable amount is estimated. For goodwill, intangible assets with indefinite useful lives and intangible assets that are not yet available for use, the recoverable amount is estimated at each balance sheet date. The recoverable amount is the higher of its net selling price and its value in use.

In assessing value in use, the expected future cash flows arising from the continuing use of an asset or cash-generating unit and from its disposal at the end of its useful life are discounted to their present value using a pre-taxation discount rate that reflects current market assessments of the time value of money and the risks specific to the asset. An impairment loss is recognised in the income statement whenever the carrying amount of an asset exceeds its recoverable amount.

For an asset that does not generate cash inflows that are largely independent of those from other assets, the recoverable amount is determined for the cash-generating unit (CGU) to which the asset belongs. An impairment loss is recognised in the income statement whenever the carrying amount of the CGU exceeds its recoverable amount.

Impairment losses recognised in respect of CGUs are allocated first to reduce the carrying amount of goodwill allocated to the CGUs and then to reduce the carrying amount of the other assets in the unit on a pro-rata basis.

A previously recognised impairment loss, other than goodwill, is reversed to the income statement if the recoverable amount increases as a result of a change in the estimates used to determine the recoverable amount, but not to an amount higher than the carrying amount that would have been determined (net of depreciation) had no impairment loss been recognised in prior years.
 
LEASES
Finance leases
Assets subject to finance lease agreements, where considered material and where the group assumes substantially all the risks and rewards of ownership, are capitalised as property, plant and equipment at the lower of fair value and the present value of the minimum lease payments at inception of the lease and the corresponding liability raised.

The cost of the assets is depreciated at appropriate rates on the straight-line basis over the estimated useful lives of the assets.
 
Lease payments are allocated using the effective interest rate method to determine the lease finance cost, which represents the difference between the total leasing commitments and the fair value of the assets acquired, which is charged to the income statement over the term of the relevant lease, and the capital payment, which reduces the liability to the lessor.
 
Operating leases
Leases where the lessor retains the risks and rewards of ownership of the underlying asset are classified as operating leases. Rentals payable under operating leases are charged to income on a straight-line basis over the term of the relevant lease.
 
NON-CURRENT ASSETS HELD FOR SALE
Non-current assets and disposal groups are classified as held for sale if their carrying amount will be recovered through a sale transaction rather than through continuing use. This condition is regarded as met only when the sale is highly probable and the assets (or disposal groups - a group of assets, with possibly some directly associated liabilities, that an entity wants to dispose of in a single transaction) are available for immediate sale in their present condition.

Non-current assets and disposal groups classified as held for sale are measured at the lower of the assets’ previous carrying amount and fair value less costs to sell. Any change in intention to sell will immediately result in the non-current assets and disposal groups being reclassified at the lower of their carrying amount before they were first classified as held for sale adjusted for any depreciation, amortisation, revaluations and impairment losses and their recoverable amount at the date of the subsequent decision not to sell.
 
INVENTORY AND CONTRACTS IN PROGRESS
Inventory is stated at the lower of cost and net realisable value. Net realisable value is the estimated selling price in the ordinary course of business, less the estimated costs of completion and selling expenses. The basis of determining cost of inventory is mainly the first-in first-out basis with average and standard cost also used. The values of finished goods and work in progress include direct costs and relevant overhead expenditure.

Obsolete, redundant and slow-moving inventory is identified on a regular basis and is written down to its estimated net realisable value. Consumables are written down with regard to their age, condition and utility.

Contracts in progress are valued at the lower of actual cost less progress invoicing and net realisable value. Cost comprises direct materials, labour, expenses and a proportion of overhead expenditure.
 
TAXATION
Income tax is recognised in the income statement except to the extent that it relates to items recognised directly in equity, in which case it is recognised in equity. The charge for taxation is based on the results for the year as adjusted for items which are non-taxable or disallowed. Income tax comprises current and deferred tax.
 
Current taxation
Current taxation comprises tax payable calculated on the basis of the expected taxable income for the year, using the tax rates enacted at the balance sheet date, and any adjustment of tax payable in respect of previous years.
 
Deferred taxation
Deferred tax is provided for using the balance sheet liability method, on all temporary differences. Temporary differences arise from differences between the carrying amounts of assets and liabilities in the financial statements for accounting purposes and the corresponding tax bases used in the computation of assessable tax profit.

Deferred tax liabilities are recognised for all taxable temporary differences and deferred tax assets are recognised to the extent that it is probable that taxable profit will be available against which deductible temporary differences can be utilised. Such assets and liabilities are not recognised if the temporary difference arises from goodwill, to the extent that it is not deductible for tax purposes or from the initial recognition of other assets and liabilities which affect neither the tax profit nor the accounting profit at the time of the transaction.

Deferred tax liabilities are recognised for taxable temporary differences associated with investments in subsidiaries and associates, and interests in joint ventures, except where the group is able to control the reversal of the temporary difference and it is probable that the temporary difference will not reverse in the foreseeable future.

Deferred tax is calculated at the tax rates that are expected to apply to the period when the asset is realised or the liability is settled. Deferred tax is charged or credited in the income statement, except when it relates to items credited or charged directly to equity, in which case the deferred tax is also dealt with in equity.

The effect on deferred tax of any changes in tax rates is recognised in the income statement, or in equity to the extent that it relates to items previously charged or credited to equity.
 
Secondary Tax on Companies (STC)
STC is recognised as part of the tax charge in the income statement in the period dividends are declared, net of STC credits on dividends recognised.

A taxation asset is recognised on unutilised STC credits when it is probable that such STC credits will be utilised in the future.
 
REVENUE
Revenue comprises net invoiced sales to customers, rental from leasing fixed and moveable properties, commission and interest earned and excludes value added tax.

Revenue from the sale of goods is recognised when the significant risks and rewards of ownership of the goods are transferred to the buyer, costs can be measured reliably and the receipt of future economic benefits is probable, while revenue from services is recognised when the services are rendered.

When the outcome of a construction contract can be reliably estimated, contract revenue and contract costs are recognised by reference to the stage of completion of the contract activity at the balance sheet date, as measured by the proportion that the contract costs incurred for work performed to date bear to the estimated total contract costs. Variations in contract work, claims and incentive payments are included to the extent that they have been agreed with the customer.

Where the outcome of a construction contract cannot be estimated reliably, contract revenue is recognised to the extent that contract costs incurred will be recoverable. Contract costs are recognised as expenses in the period in which they are incurred.

When it is probable that total contract costs will exceed total contract revenue, the expected loss is recognised immediately.

Airtime sales at the cellular service provider are disclosed at the amounts charged to subscribers.

Dividends are recognised when the shareholder’s right to receive them has been established.

Interest is recognised on a time proportion basis, taking account of the principal amount outstanding and the effective rates over the period to maturity using the effective interest rate method.
 
FUNCTIONAL AND PRESENTATION CURRENCY
Items included in the financial statements of each of the group’s entities are measured using the currency of the primary economic environment in which the entity operates (functional currency). Reunert group’s company and consolidated functional and presentation currency is rand and all amounts, unless otherwise stated, are stated in millions of rand (Rm).
 
FOREIGN CURRENCIES
Foreign currency transactions
Transactions in foreign currencies are translated into the functional currency and accounted for at the rates of exchange ruling on the date of the transaction. Gains and losses arising from the settlement of such transactions are recognised in the income statement on a net basis unless the gains and losses are material, in which case they are reported separately.
 
Foreign currency balances
Foreign monetary assets and liabilities of South African companies are translated into the functional currency at rates of exchange ruling at 30 September.

Unrealised differences on foreign monetary assets and liabilities are recognised in the income statement in the period in which they occur.
 
Foreign entities
The financial statements of all foreign operations are translated into South African rand as follows:
 
Assets and liabilities at rates of exchange ruling at the group’s financial year-end; and
Income, expenditure and cashflow items at the weighted average rates of exchange during the financial year, to the extent that such average rates approximate actual rates.
   
Differences arising on translation are reflected in non-distributable reserves as a foreign currency translation reserve.

On disposal of part or all of the investment, the proportionate share of the related cumulative gains and losses previously recognised in the foreign currency translation reserve are included in determining the profit or loss on disposal of that investment recognised in the income statement.

Goodwill and fair value adjustments arising on the acquisition of foreign operations are treated as assets and liabilities of the foreign operation and translated at closing rates at balance sheet date.
 
PROVISIONS
A provision is raised when a reliable estimate can be made of a present legal or constructive obligation, resulting from a past event, which will probably result in an outflow of economic benefits, and there is no realistic alternative to settling the obligation created by the event, which occurred before the balance sheet date.
 
Product warranties
Provision is made for the group’s estimated liability on all products still under warranty at the balance sheet date. The provision is based on historical warranty data and returns and a weighting of possible outcomes against their associated probabilities.
 
FINANCIAL INSTRUMENTS
Measurement
Financial instruments carried on the balance sheet include cash and cash equivalents, investments, receivables, trade payables, borrowings and derivative instruments. Regular way purchases and sales of financial assets are accounted for at settlement date. Financial instruments are initially measured at cost, which includes transaction costs except for items carried at fair value through profit and loss. Details of the subsequent measurement of different classes of financial instruments are dealt with below and in the relevant notes to the annual financial statements.
 
Cash and cash equivalents
Cash and cash equivalents are measured at fair value.
 
Trade and other receivables
Trade and other receivables are stated at their invoiced value as reduced by appropriate allowances for estimated irrecoverable amounts and cost of collection.
 
Derivative instruments
Derivative financial instruments, principally forward foreign exchange contracts and interest rate swap agreements, are used by the group in its management of financial risks. The risks being hedged by the forward foreign exchange contracts are exchange losses due to unfavourable movements between the rand and the foreign currency. The risks being hedged by interest rate swaps are increases in interest expenses due to higher interest rates being charged on borrowings. Gains and losses arising from the changes in the fair values of interest rate swaps are recognised in the income statement as they arise.

In accordance with its treasury policy, the group does not hold or issue derivative instruments for trading purposes. Derivative instruments are initially measured at cost, if any, and are subsequently remeasured to fair value at subsequent reporting dates with changes reflected in the income statement
 
Financial liabilities
Financial liabilities, other than derivative instruments, are recognised at amortised cost, using the effective interest rate method, comprising original debt less principal payments and amortisations.

Financial liabilities are classified according to the substance of the contractual arrangements entered into. Debt instruments issued, which carry the right to convert to equity that is dependant on the outcome of uncertainties beyond the control of both the group and the holder, are classified as liabilities except where the possibility of conversion is certain.

Financial liabilities include interest bearing bank loans and overdrafts and trade and other payables.

Interest bearing bank loans and overdrafts are recorded at the proceeds received, net of direct issue costs. Trade and other payables are stated at their nominal value.
 
Gains and losses on subsequent measurement
Gains and losses arising from the remeasurement to fair value of financial instruments that are not available for sale financial assets are recognised in the income statement. Unrealised gains and losses arising from changes in the fair value of available for sale financial assets that are measured at fair value subsequent to initial recognition are recognised directly in equity until the disposal or impairment of the financial instrument, at which time the cumulative gain or loss previously recognised in equity is included in the income statement for the period.
 
Derecognition
Financial assets are derecognised when the contractual rights to the cash flows from the financial asset expire. Financial liabilities are derecognised when the liability is extinguished, that is, the obligation specified in the contract is discharged, cancelled or expires.
 
ABNORMAL ITEMS
Abnormal items are items of income or expense that arise from ordinary activities but are of such size, nature or incidence that they are disclosed separately in order to best reflect the group’s performance.
 
EMPLOYEE BENEFITS
Short-term employee benefits
The cost of all short-term employee benefits is recognised during the period in which the employee renders the related service. The provisions for employee entitlements to wages, salaries, performance bonuses and annual leave represent the amounts which the group has a present obligation to pay as a result of employees’ services provided to the balance sheet date. The provisions have been calculated at undiscounted amounts based on current wage and salary levels.
 
Retirement benefits
Payments to defined contribution retirement benefit plans are charged as an expense as they fall due. Payments made to state-managed retirement benefit schemes are dealt with as defined contribution plans where the group’s obligations under the schemes are equivalent to those arising in a defined contribution retirement benefit plan.
 
Defined benefit obligations
For defined benefit retirement plans, the cost of providing benefits is determined using the projected unit credit method, with actuarial valuations being carried out annually.

Actuarial gains and losses which exceed 10 per cent of the greater of the present value of the group’s pension obligations and the fair value of plan assets are amortised over the expected average remaining working lives of the participating employees.

Past service cost is recognised immediately to the extent that the benefits are already vested, and otherwise is amortised on a straight-line basis over the average period until the amended benefits become vested.

The amount recognised in the balance sheet represents the present value of the defined benefit obligation as adjusted for unrecognised actuarial gains and losses and unrecognised past service cost and reduced by the fair value of plan assets. Any asset resulting from this calculation is limited to unrecognised actuarial losses and past service cost, plus the present value of available refunds and reductions in future contributions to the plan.
 
SHARE-BASED PAYMENTS
The group issues equity-settled share-based payments to certain employees. Equity-settled share-based payments are measured at fair value at the date of grant. The fair value determined at the grant date of the equity-settled share-based payments is expensed on a straight-line basis over the vesting period, based on the group’s estimate of shares that will eventually vest.

Fair value is measured by use of the Binomial pricing model. The expected lives used in the model have been adjusted, based on management’s best estimate, for the effects of non-transferability, exercise restrictions, and behavioural considerations.
 
Black Economic Empowerment (BEE) transactions
BEE transactions involving the disposal or issue of equity interests in subsidiaries are recognised when the accounting recognition criteria have been met.

Although economic and legal ownership of such instruments have transferred to the BEE partner, the accounting derecognition of such equity interest sold by the parent company or recognition of equity instruments issued in the underlying subsidiary is postponed until the significant risks and rewards of ownership of the equity have passed to the BEE partner.
 
SEGMENT REPORTING
A segment is a distinguishable component of the group that is engaged either in providing products or services (business segment), or in providing products or services within a particular economic environment (geographic segment), which is subject to risks and rewards that are different from those of other segments. The group’s primary business segmentation is based on the group’s internal reporting format to management.
 
CRITICAL JUDGEMENTS AND ESTIMATIONS
In preparing the financial statements in conformity with IFRS, the board of directors has made the following judgements, estimates and assumptions that have the most significant effect on the reported amounts and related disclosures:
 
Contracts in progress
Various assumptions are applied in arriving at the profit or loss recognised on contracts in progress. Refer to the revenue accounting policy for more detail.
 
Provisions
Various assumptions are applied in arriving at the carrying value of provisions that are recognised in terms of the requirements of IAS 37 Provisions, Contingent Liabilities and Contingent Assets. This includes the provision for warranty claims and contract completion. The carrying amounts of the provisions are disclosed in note 26.
 
Impairments
Property, plant and equipment as well as intangible assets are considered for impairment when conditions indicate that impairment may be necessary. These conditions include economic conditions of the operating unit as well as the viability of the asset itself. The discounted cash flow method is used, taking into account future expected cash flows, market conditions and the expected useful lives of the assets.

The impairment of goodwill is considered at least annually. Assumptions were made in assessing any possible impairment of goodwill. Details of these assumptions and risk factors are set out in note 13.
 
Useful lives and residual values
The useful lives and residual values of property, plant and equipment and intangible assets are reviewed at each balance sheet date. These useful lives are estimated by management based on historic analysis and other available information. The residual values are based on the assessment of useful lives and other available information.
 
Deferred taxation assets
Judgement is applied by management to determine whether a deferred taxation asset should be recognised in the event of a tax loss, based on whether there will be future taxable income against which to utilise the tax loss.
 
Retirement benefit obligation
Various assumptions have been applied by the actuaries in the calculation of the retirement benefit obligation. The assumptions are disclosed in note 30 to the annual financial statements.
   
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